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Bhutan Occupies a fascinating corner of the globe. Scientists have long considered the eastern Himalaya to be an area critically important in terms of global biologiccal diversity. Add to this legacy of isolation; the sheer inassibility of much of the country low human population and a traditional reverence for nature and you have the ingredients for a singular showcase of nature conservation within a region increasingly impacted by overpopulation and indiscriminated development.
A rabge of high Himalayan peaks forms much of the northern and western borders of Bhutan. These are the thrones of the gods; almost none has been climbed many are virtuality unexplored and some are not even named. there are several high mountain passes that cross the Himalaya but for the most part it remains an impenetrable snow-clad barrier. The Himalayan range extendes from Jhomolhari in the west to Kulha Gangri near the centre point of the northern border. A chain of lower peaks extends eastwards to the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.
The Lunana region just south of the midpointof Bhutan's border with Tibet is an area of glacial peaks and high valleys that are snow bound during the winter. A range of high peaks forms the southern boundery of Lunana ; isolating it from the rest of the country.
South of te high peaks is an area of broad and deep valleys and steep forested hills ranging from 1100m to 3500m in elavation. This is the largest region of Bhutan andall the major towns including Thimphu are here. This region is a labyrinth of deep ravines formed by fast flowing rivers. The hillsides are generally too steep for farming and so most have remained covered in virgin forest. The greater part of Bhutan's western border is formed by the Himalayan ranges including the peaks of Jhomolhari and Jichu Drakye. several forested ridges extend eastwards from this range and this define the large valleys of Thimphu; paro Haa and Samtse. Between Punakha and Thimphu lies a well-defined ridge that forms the watershed between Thimphu's Wang Chhu and Punakha's Puna Tsang Chhu. The east-west road crosses this ridge through a 3050m pass; the Dochu a.
A range called the Black Mountains lies to the east of the Puna Tsang Chhu watershed forming the major barrier between eastern and western Bhutan. Pele la is the most important pass across the Black Mountains.
A north south range of hills saparates the Trongsa and Bumthang valley system.The road crosses this ridge via Yotong la. Further east the Donga range of hills follows the border that separates the crossing point for the road. Eastern Bhutan which encompasses most of the manas Chhu watershed lies to the east of this range.